Thursday, June 18, 2015

Ramadan 2 The Virtues of Fasting in the Summer and What nullifies fasting?

Ibn Rajab has a section in ‘Lata’if al-Ma’arif’ (p. 272-273) about the virtues of fasting during hot days. Since Ramadan will start in the summer this year, this will be a good encouragement:
“…And from the acts of worship whose reward is multiplied during the heat is fasting, and this is because of the thirst that one experiences in the mid-day heat.
This is why Mu’adh bin Jabal expressed regret on his deathbed that he would no longer experience this mid-day thirst, as did other early Muslims.
And it was related that Abu Bakr would fast in the summer and not fast in the winter, and ‘Umar advised his son ‘Abdullah on his deathbed: “Try to obtain the characteristics of faith,” and the first one he mentioned was fasting in the intense summer heat.
And al-Qasim bin Muhammad said that ‘A’ishah would fast in the intense heat, and he was asked: “What drove her to do this?” He replied: “She would take advantage of the days before death.” And some of the righteous women would choose the hottest days and fast them, saying: “If the price is low, everyone will buy,” meaning that she wanted to do those actions that only a few were capable of due to how hard it was to do them, and this is indicative of the high aspirations these women had.
And Abu Musa al-Ash’ari was on a boat, and he heard someone calling out: “O passengers, stand up!” And he said this three times. So, Abu Musa told him: “How can we stand up? Don’t you see where we are? How can we stand up?” So, the caller said: “Let me tell you of a rule that Allah made upon Himself: whoever makes himself thirsty for Allah’s sake on a hot day has the right upon Allah to have his thirst quenched on the Day of Resurrection.” So, Abu Musa would search out the days that were so hot that one would feel he was being cooked, and he would fast those days.
Ka’b said that Allah Said to Musa: “I made it incumbent upon Myself that whoever is thirsty for My sake will have his thirst quenched on the Day of Resurrection,” and others said that it’s written in the Torah: “Glad tidings for whoever makes himself hungry in anticipation of the Great Day where he will have his hunger satisfied, and glad tidings for whoever makes himself thirsty in anticipation of the Great Day where he will have his thirst quenched.”
al-Hasan said: “A maiden of Paradise will speak to the wali of Allah while he is laying with her on the shore of a river of honey in Paradise while she hands him a glass of the sweetest drink, and she will ask him: “Do you know what day Allah married me to you? He Saw you on a long summer day while you were thirsty in the mid-day heat, and He called the Angels and Said: “Look at My slave. He has left his wife and pleasure and food and drink for Me out of his desire for what I have for him. Bear witness that I have Forgiven him,” and He Forgave you on that day and married you to me.”"
And when ‘Amir bin ‘Abd Qays went from Basrah to Sham, Mu’awiyah would ask him to tell him what he needed. He refused to ask of him, and eventually said: “All I need is for you to return the heat of Basrah to me to make the fasting a bit harder, as it is too easy in your lands.”
And al-Hajjaj was on a journey between Makkah and Madinah. He pulled out his dinner and invited a bedouin to eat with him, and the bedouin said: “I have been invited by One who is better than you and I have accepted the invitation.” He asked: “And who is this?” The man replied: “Allah invited me to fast, and I fasted.” al-Hajjaj asked: “On this very hot day?” The man replied: “Yes. I am fasting it in anticipation of a much hotter day.” al-Hajjaj said: “So, eat today and fast tomorrow.” The man replied: “Only if you can guarantee that I will live until tomorrow.” al-Hajjaj said: “This isn’t in my hands.” The man said: “How can you ask me to do something now when there is something of the future that isn’t in your hands?”
And Ibn ‘Umar went on a trip once with some companions, and they saw a sheep-herder who they invited to eat with them. He said: “I am fasting,” and Ibn ‘Umar said: “You are fasting in heat like this, and while you are between all these plants and sheep?” The herder replied: “I’m taking advantage of my remaining days.” Ibn ‘Umar was impressed by this reply and said: “Can you sell one of your sheep to us? We’ll feed you from its meat when you break your fast, and we’ll also pay you for it.” The herder said: “It doesn’t belong to me. It belongs to my master.” Ibn ‘Umar said: “What would your master say if you told him that it was eaten by a wolf?” The herder raised his finger to the sky and said: “What about Allah?” Ibn ‘Umar kept repeating this phrase that the herder was saying, and when he got to the city, he went to the herder’s owner and bought him and his sheep from him. He then freed the herder and gave him his sheep as a gift.
And Ruh bin Zinba’ was traveling between Makkah and Madinah on a very hot day. A herder living on a mountain approached him, and he said to him: “O herder, come eat with me.” The herder said: “I’m fasting.” Ruh said: “You’re fasting in this heat?” The herder replied: “Should I let my days pass by in vain?” ٍSo, Ruh said: “You have used your days wisely, O herder, while Ruh bin Zinba’ has wasted his.”
And Ibn ‘Umar used to fast extra days until he would almost faint, and this wouldn’t cause him to break his fast. And al-Imam Ahmad would fast until he was about to pass out, and would wipe water over his face. He was asked about fasting very hot days, and he replied: “There is nothing wrong with wetting a towel to squeeze the water on himself to cool down with.” And the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) would pour water over his head while fasting.
ِAnd Abu ad-Darda’ would say: “Fast the very hot days in anticipation of the Day of Resurrection, and pray two rak’at in the darkness of night in anticipation of the darkness of the grave.” And it’s reported in the two ‘Sahih’s that he said: “You have seen us with the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه و سلم) on some of his journeys on very hot days, and a man would hold his hand against his head due to the intensity of the heat, and none of them would be fasting except the Messenger of Allah and ‘Abdullah bin Rawahah.” And the narration of Muslim states that Abu ad-Darda’ said: “This was during the month of Ramadan.”

When those who fast for Allah in the heat are patient despite their intense thirst, He will set aside a specific gate of the gates of Paradise for them. This is the gate called Rayyan, and whoever enters through it will drink, and whoever drinks after entering it will never be thirsty again. When they enter through it, it will be locked for those after them, and none will enter through it except them…”

What nullifies fasting?

(Part No. 9; Page No. 178-179) 

Nullifiers of Fasting

The third question of Fatwa no. 18424 

Q 3: What nullifies fasting? 

A: There are numerous things which nullify fasting, to mention but a few: 

1- Sexual intercourse: if the fasting person, who is of sound mind and resident, has sexual intercourse during the days of Ramadan, their fasting is no longer valid. Thus, one must make up for that day, plus the Kaffarah (expiation), i.e. emancipating a believing bondsman, and if one fails to find a bondsman they have to fast two successive months, and if they are unable to do so, then they are to feed sixty Miskin (a needy person), i.e. giving half a Sa` (1 Sa` = 2.172 kg) of the staple food each, namely, 1.5 kg approximately. A woman shares the same ruling if she is resident, of sound mind, and not coerced. 

2- Ejaculation: resulting from kissing, touching (a woman's body), or gazing (stealthily at women). Thus, one's fast is no longer valid, and one has to make up for that day only, without Kaffarah. 

3- Intentional eating and drinking. However, if someone eats or drinks forgetfully their Sawm (Fast) remains valid. This includes all that enters one's stomach, such as food or water. In addition, there is what is called Sa`ut, which means sniffing water into one's stomach through the nose. Also, medical nutrients nullify one's fasting. 
(Part No. 9; Page No. 179) 

All these invalidate one's fasting and require Kaffarah. 

4- Intentional bloodletting: whether through Hijamah (cupping) or drawing a large quantity of blood; all such things invalidate one's fasting and require Kaffarah. 

5- Intentional vomiting: to eject the stomach contents, i.e. food and drink, through the mouth. This invalidates one's fasting and requires Kaffarah, but if one vomits unintentionally, then the fast remains intact. 

In brief, these are the nullifiers of Sawm. However, some Muslim scholars, may Allah have mercy on them, fully explained these rulings that cannot be mentioned in detail here. 

May Allah grant us success! May peace and blessings be upon our Prophet Muhammad, his family, and Companions! 

Permanent Committee for Scholarly Research and Ifta' 


فتاوى اللجنة الدائمة
تصفح برقم المجلد > المجموعة الثانية > المجلد التاسع (الصيام) > الصيام > مفسدات الصوم > المفطرات التي تصرف الصائم عن صومه

(الجزء رقم : 9، الصفحة رقم: 178)

مفسدات الصوم
السؤال الثالث من الفتوى رقم ( 18424 )
س3: ما هي المفطرات التي تصرف الصائم عن صومه؟
ج3: مفسدات الصوم كثيرة، منها:
1 - الجماع، فإذا جامع الصائم في نهار رمضان وهو مقيم صحيح بطل صيامه ، ولزمه قضاء ذلك اليوم الذي جامع فيه، ويجب عليه مع القضاء الكفارة، وهي: عتق رقبة مؤمنة، فإن لم يجد صام شهرين متتابعين، فإن لم يستطع أطعم ستين مسكينًا لكل مسكين نصف صاع من قوت البلد، ومقداره بالوزن: كيلو ونصف تقريبًا، والمرأة مثل الرجل إذا كانت مقيمة صحيحة غير مكرهة.
2 - إنزال المني بتقبيل أو لمس أو استمناء أو تكرار نظر، فإذا حصل شيء من ذلك أفسد الصوم، ووجب القضاء فقط دون الكفارة.
3 - الأكل أو الشرب عمدًا ، أما الناسي فلا يؤثر على صيامه، ويدخل في معنى الأكل والشرب كل ما دخل الجوف من الغذاء أو الماء، ومن ذلك ما يعرف بالسعوط، وهو إيصال الماء إلى الجوف بواسطة الأنف، ومن ذلك أيضًا أخذ المغذي الطبي
(الجزء رقم : 9، الصفحة رقم: 179)
فهذا كله يفسد الصوم ويوجب القضاء.
4 - إخراج الدم عمدًا، سواء بالحجامة أو الفصد أو سحب الدم الكثير، فهذا كله يفسد الصوم ويوجب القضاء.
5 - التقيؤ عمدًا ، وهو دفع ما في العدة من الطعام أو الشراب عن طريق الفم، فهذا يفسد الصوم ويوجب القضاء، أما إذا ذرعه القيء وغلبه دون اختياره فإنه لا يفسد الصوم.
هذه مفسدات الصوم بإيجاز، وقد بسط أهل العلم رحمهم الله هذه الأحكام بما لا يمكن ذكره هنا.
وبالله التوفيق، وصلى الله على نبينا محمد وآله وصحبه وسلم.

اللجنة الدائمة للبحوث العلمية والإفتاء

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